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Buying a Home

Posted by admin on 28/05/2014
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This guide sets out essential information for nationals wanting to buy property in Spain, including advice on legal advice, buying in certain areas, complaints and more. We are unable to provide any guidance on individual property purchases apart from the information and links listed below. [/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row]

Legal advice

It is strongly recommended that you choose a lawyer who is specialised in Spanish land law (urbanismo). The Spanish property conveyancing system is different to the UK and you should ensure that those involved in the transaction are qualified professionals who have an expert knowledge of the system.

Exercise extreme caution if an estate agent, promoter or lawyer urges you to cut corners to save money or time.

If you choose to work with a British estate agent, promoter or lawyer, check that they are qualified, reliable and have experience operating in Spain. Check that they are registered with the Law Society in the UK and specialise in International Transactions. If your lawyer is based in Spain, ask for their registration number and check that they are registered and practising with the local bar association (Colegio de Abogados).

You should also check that your lawyer has professional indemnity insurance and not sign any papers or hand over any money until you have taken independent legal advice. Although the British Embassy cannot recommend a lawyer, we do have lists of local English-speaking lawyers and qualified translators available on our website.

Should you become involved in a property dispute, but do not have sufficient means to meet the costs of a court case, you can apply for legal aid. More information is available on the European E-Justice Portal. Applications for those resident in Spain should be directed to the local bar association.

Please bear in mind that if you do become involved in a property dispute, you may need to seek a new lawyer with specific expertise in the field of litigation you wish to pursue, e.g. specialist civil lawyers for compensation claims against private parties such as agents, developers or banks, and specialist public body litigants (contencioso administrativo) for claims against local, regional or state authorities.

Translators

If you do not have a good understanding of Spanish, make sure that you get all contracts and relevant documentation translated by an independent translator. You can find a list of accredited translators and interpreters in Spain on the Spanish Ministry for Foreign Affairs website.

Mortgages

Do your homework: you should analyse and compare a range of different products and services offered by different lending companies. If you have any doubts about the terms and conditions, ask the lender to clarify. You should also check that the lender is listed as authorised to operate in Spain with the Bank of Spain.

Look for the mortgage which is most appropriate for your capabilities and needs. There are a range of mortgages on offer and you should pay special attention to the interest rate and repayment period, fees for setting up the mortgage as well as early repayment and cancellation fees.

If you cannot keep up the mortgage repayments, the Spanish bank could repossess your property in Spain. If the value of the property is less than the total debt outstanding (you are in negative equity), the bank may pursue your UK assets to recover the mortgage shortfall using a European Enforcement Order.

Make sure you fully understand the mortgage agreement you sign. If you have any doubts check with the branch during the 10 working-day period after the binding offer has been provided. If for any reason you cannot keep up the mortgage repayments, you should speak to your bank immediately (before defaulting on repayments) to discuss the options available.

Further information on mortgages in Spain is available from the Spanish Mortgage Association.

Taxation

The Spanish tax authority is called the Agencia Tributaria. It provides some information on its website in English.

Complaints against the legal system

If you believe your lawyer has been negligent and has not met their obligations, you should complain in the first instance to the provincial bar association. If the response is unsatisfactory, you can take your complaint to the regional and then national bar associations. Complaints should be in writing and in Spanish. A full list of the bar associations around Spain can be found on the website of the General Council of Spanish Lawyers.

If you have a complaint about the way a court has handled your case, you can present a complaint to the General Council of the Judiciary.

Visa/residence requirements

Residency requirements

From 28 March 2007, Royal Decree 240/07 requires that all EU citizens planning to reside in Spain for more than 3 months should register in person at the Oficina de Extranjeros in their province of residence or at designated Police stations. You will be issued an A4 printed Residence Certificate stating your name, address, nationality, NIEnumber (Número de Identificación Extranjeros) and date of registration.

More details can be found on the website for the Spanish Ministry of the Interior(information is in Spanish).

Changes to the residency regulations

On 10 July 2012 the Spanish government introduced details of the new residency requirements for all EU citizens, including British nationals.

Under the new rules, EU citizens applying for residency in Spain may be required to produce evidence of sufficient financial means to support themselves (and dependants). Applicants may also be asked for proof of private or public healthcare insurance. More details about the application process and documentation you need are available on the website of the Spanish Ministry for Work and Social Security.

The Ministerial Order sets out the new residency requirements and some of the documentation applicants may be asked to present. We have created an unofficial translation of the Ministerial Order below.

Residency requirements – for information only

This is an unofficial translation by the British Embassy* of the important parts of Spanish Order 1490 of 9 July 2012, setting out the rules on the entry, free movement and residence in Spain of nationals of other European Union (EU) Member States and European Economic Area states.

Article 1: Right of residence for a period of longer than three months

Nationals of:

  • a member state of the European Union
  • other States party to the Agreement on the European Economic Area
  • Switzerland

have a right to reside in Spain for a period of longer than three months if they meet the conditions laid down in Article 7 of Royal Decree 240/2007, of 16 February 2007, on entrance, free movement and residence in Spain of Nationals of European Union member states and of other states party to the Agreement on the European Economic Area.

Article 2: Attendance and registration on the Central Register of Foreign Nationals

  1. Applications for registration as residents by the nationals mentioned in Article 1 shall comply with the provisions of sections 5 and 6 of Article 7 of Royal Decree 240/2007, of 16 February 2007.
  2. Applications will be filed in person in the Immigration Office of the province where they intend to reside or in the relevant Police Station.
  3. If the application for registration does not meet the necessary requirements for it to be processed, the interested person will be required to correct any faults or attach the obligatory documents within a period of ten days and he will be informed that, if he does not do this, it will be assumed that he has abandoned his application, by reasoned decision, which does not exhaust the administrative procedure and which may be appealed against.
  4. The certificate will be issued immediately, once compliance with the corresponding requirements has been confirmed. This certificate will give the name, nationality and address of the registered person, his foreign national identity number and the date of registration.

Article 3: Supporting documentation

  1. All applications for registration must be accompanied by the applicant’s passport or national identity document, which shall be valid and in force. If these documents have expired, a copy of these and the application for renewal must be produced
  2. In addition, the following documentation will be required, depending on the applicant’s circumstances:
  • a) Employed workers must produce a declaration to the effect that they have been hired by the employer or a certificate of employment. These documents must include, as a minimum, details of the name and address of the company, tax identification and Employer’s Social Security Number. Presentation of an employment contract registered with the corresponding Public Employment Service or a document of registration or situation similar to registration with the corresponding Social Security System will be accepted, although it will not be necessary to produce these documents if the interested party agrees to have his details checked against the General Social Security Finance Office files “Ficheros de la Tesorería General de la Seguridad Social”
  • b) Self-employed workers must produce evidence to the effect that they are self-employed. Registration on the Economic Activities List “Censo de Actividades Económicos” or proof of their establishment by means of registration in the Mercantile Registry “Registro Mercantil” or a document of registration or situation similar to registration with the corresponding Social Security System will be accepted, although it will not be necessary to produce these documents if the interested person agrees to have his details checked against the General Social Security Finance Office or Taxation Office files “Ficheros de la Tesorería General de la Seguridad Social o de la Agencia Tributaria”
  • c) People who do not work in Spain must produce documentation proving that they comply with the following two conditions:
  • i. Public or private health insurance contracted in Spain or in another country, provided that it ensures cover in Spain during their period of residence equivalent to the cover provided by the National Health System. Pensioners will be considered to meet this condition if they can prove, by means of the corresponding certificate, that they are entitled to health care paid for by the State from which they receive their pension
  • ii. have sufficient resources, for themselves and their family members, not to become a burden on Spain’s social assistance system during their period of residence. Proof of the possession of sufficient resources, whether from regular income, including work income or income of another kind, or from ownership of assets, will be given by any legally admissible evidence, such as property deeds, certified cheques, documentation proving that income from capital is received or credit cards. In this latter case, an up to date bank certificate proving the amount available by way of credit on the aforesaid card shall be produced. The assessment of sufficient resources must be carried out on an individual basis, taking into account the applicant’s personal and family circumstances. The possession of resources that are more than the amount established each year by the State General Budgets Act “Ley de Presupuestos Generales de Estado” that justifies the right to receive non-contributory benefits, taking into account the interested persons’ personal and family circumstances, will be regarded as sufficient proof to meet this requirement
  • d) Students, including those who are taking vocational training courses, must present documents proving fulfillment with the following conditions:
  • i. Enrolment in a public or private establishment, accredited or financed by the competent educational administration
  • ii. Public or private health insurance contracted in Spain or in another country, provided that it ensures complete cover in Spain. However, this condition will be deemed to be met if the student has a European Health Insurance Card that is valid for a period that covers the entire period of residence and that allows him to receive, exclusively, any medical assistance that are necessary from a medical point of view, taking into account the nature of the assistance and the envisaged duration.
  • iii. Sworn Statement that he has sufficient resources for himself and his family members, so that they do not become a burden on Spain’s social assistance system during their period of residence. Participation in European Union programmes that promote educational exchanges for students and teachers will be regarded as sufficient proof of compliance with these requirements.

Article 4: Application of the right to reside for a period of longer than three months to family members

  1. This Order will also apply to family members, as set out in Article 2 of Royal Decree 240/2007 of 16 February 2007, who are nationals of an EU Member State or of another State party to the Agreement on the European Economic Area and of Switzerland, who meet or accompany a national of a Member State of the European Union or of another State party to the Agreement on the European Economic Area and of Switzerland.
  2. In the case of students, who are nationals of an EU Member State or of another State party to the Agreement on the European Economic Area or Switzerland, the right of residence for a period of longer than three months will only apply, regardless of their nationality, to their spouse or de facto partner registered in a public register in the terms established in Article 2 of Royal Decree 240/2007, of 16 February 2007, and dependent children, provided that they meet the conditions laid down in letter d) of section 2 of Article 3 of this Order.
  3. In other cases, the right of residence will also be extended to the spouse or de facto partner registered in a public register, to their direct descendants and to those of their spouse or registered partner, who are less than 21 years of age or disabled or who are older than this age and dependent on them and also to the direct ascendant and to those of the spouse or registered partner who are dependent on them, when they are not nationals of a Member State of the European Union and accompany the national of a Member State of the European Union or of another State party to the Agreement on the European Economic Area and of Switzerland or meet him in the Spanish State, provided that the conditions laid down in letters a), b) or c) of section 2 of Article 3 of this Order are met.
  4. Family members who are nationals of a Member State of the European Union or of another State party to the Agreement on the European Economic Area and of Switzerland, set out in sections 1, 2 and 3 of this Article, must apply for registration in the Central Register of Foreign Nationals in accordance with the provisions of this Order. Family members who are not nationals of a Member State of the European Union or of another State party to the Agreement on the European Economic State and of Switzerland, set out in Articles 2 and 3 of this Article, must apply for a residence card to be issued for a family member of a Union national, in accordance with the provisions of Article 8 of Royal Decree 240/2007, of 16 February 2007.

Single Interim Provision.

This Order will apply to applications presented after 24 April 2012.

First Final Provision: Competency Title

This Ministerial Order is passed under the provisions of Article 149.1.2 of the Spanish Constitution, which gives the State sole jurisdiction in matters of nationality, immigration, emigration, foreign affairs and right of asylum.

Second Final Provision: Entry into force

This Order will come into force on the day after its publication in the “State Official Bulletin”. (10 July 2012)

*This translation is provided by the British Embassy with the intention of assisting English-speaking EU citizens to understand the new residency requirements. The British Embassy can take no responsibility for any errors or differences between this and any future official translation, nor for any inconvenience or expense caused by any error or difference.

Non-EU family members

There is also provision for non-EU family members, who have entered on valid passports and visas (where required), to reside with EU citizens, providing they too register in person at the Oficina de Extranjeros or designated police stations within 3 months of entry. They will be issued with Tarjetas de Residencia de Familiar de Cuidadano de la Union (Residency cards for family members of EU citizens). Additional documents will be required.

Registering on the padrón

The padrón is a list of all the people who live in a certain town. Empadronarse is the act of registering yourself on this list with your local town hall.

Who should register?

It is obligatory by Spanish law to register on the padrón at the Town Hall where you habitually reside, yet many British ex-pats still have not done so. Perhaps some view the padrón as a means of vigilance by the state, in ‘big-brother’ fashion. However, in reality, it is simply a way for the town hall to know how many people live in their area, without entering into investigations as to a person’s official residence status or financial affairs.

How you register

You don’t have to own your house to register, just have an address where you habitually live, no matter whether you are the owner, you rent, or live with family or friends. Nor is registration a long drawn out registration process. Simply go to the padrón office of your town hall and fill in the form they provide. Take along official identification, such as a passport, and also your NIE or residence certificate/card, a recent utility bill in your name, and the deeds to your house or a copy of your rental contract. Although you may have to return to collect your certificate, the actual registration is completed all on the same day. Some town halls in the Balearic Islands make a small charge for issuing a ´Certificado de empadronamiento’ (eg 1.20 euros in Palma de Mallorca).

Benefits of padrón registration

Once you’ve completed the simple process, you can begin to enjoy all the advantages being on the padrón offers, such as:

Better public services

Central government allocates money to the different municipalities according to how many people are on the padrón. Therefore, if you are not registered, your town hall is losing money for the provision of health centres, police officers, fire fighters and schools.

Access to benefits and social care

You must be on the padrón for a certain period of time in order to access some income-related benefits and other aspects of social care available through social services at your town hall.

A reduction in taxes

Depending on the town hall, registration on the padrón could mean reductions in certain community charges and inheritance tax. Furthermore, those on the padrón can also often enjoy discounted courses, leisure and cultural activities run by the town hall.

Discounted travel

A current ‘Cerificado de Empadronamiento’ can allow residents of Spanish islands to receive discounts of up to 50% on air fares and ferry tickets between the islands and the mainland.

Voting rights

In order to register to vote in local or European elections, you must first be registered on the padrón.

An easier life

You’ll find you need your padrón certificate to carry out various administrative tasks, such as register for healthcare, register your car with Spanish number plates or enrol your children in school.

Padrón status checks

Our understanding from talking to local and national authorities is that there is currently a one-off exercise underway to check the accuracy of the padrón registers. This means you may be contacted to confirm your status on the padrón. If you are contacted, you will be asked to answer to remain active on the padrón and if you don’t then you may be removed from the register. If you are not contacted, you are not required to confirm your status.

For certain services (eg social services) you may be required to show a recent padrón certificate which is less than 3 months old. This is normal procedure and is not related to the above mentioned project.

Non-EU citizens are required to renew their padrón certificate in any case. Please contact your locality authority about any changes to the padrón registration process.

Purchaser’s checklist

Before you complete your property purchase you should make sure that:

  • you have seen the Land Registry extract (nota simple), available from the Colegio de Registradores (translations into English for an additional fee), and checked the following details
  • the property and land for sale match the details registered and the sellers are the registered owner(s)
  • there are no debts or charges, such as a mortgage, on the property
  • there are no legal proceedings initiated against the property for contravention of land planning law
  • you have checked that planning permissions are in order and the property is a legal build. This is particularly relevant when buying off-plan or direct from a developer. The town hall can inform you whether the building has all licences and permissions and provide details of the type of land. If the property is built on rural land or land that is not classified for construction, additional confirmation should be sought from the regional government as to whether they have authorised the construction
  • if you are buying an off-plan property, confirm that the property has been certified as finished by a registered architect and registered as a new build in the property register. The registration should also provide details of the developer’s insurance against structural and other defects in the construction. In the case of a private build (the previous owner built their own house and decided to sell before ten years had lapsed) you will need to request these details separately
  • you have checked the latest town plan to see whether or not the plot you wish to buy has any building restrictions, is in a green zone or includes a public pathway or similar. This can be viewed at to the town planning (urbanismo) department of the local town hall
  • you have carried out a property survey. Whilst this is not obligatory, it is wise to get a chartered surveyor to check the property
  • You know the cadastral value of the property and how much purchase tax will be due. Be aware that tax is charged on the council’s valuation of the property as opposed to the amount of the sale. You can check this at the regional government’s online tax agency site using the cadastal reference number

Make sure you have seen the following documents:

  • a paid-up receipt for the previous owner’s annual property tax (IBI). It is also wise to get a certificate from the town hall proving that there are no unpaid rates from previous years
  • the Catastral certificate giving the exact boundaries and square metres of your land. The Cadastral record will be linked to the Land Register record by a cadastral reference which will be included in both. You should ensure that the property and land description contained in both records matches
  • the licence of first occupancy or habitation certificate issued by the town hall. You will need this document to connect to electricity and water companies. Developers cannot force you to complete without this licence.
  • receipt to prove all utility bills have been paid by the previous owner
  • if applicable, a certificate signed by the President of the Community of Property Owners stating that there are no outstanding debts. You should be aware that if you later find that there are such debts outstanding, as the new owner, you assume the debts for the current and previous year (two years in total)
  • as from 1st June 2013, all homes for sale or to let in Spain are required by law to have an energy efficiency certificate. If you are considering buying a property, the seller is obliged to show you this certificate

On completion, the public deed should reflect an accurate description of the property. It is advisable that you register the property in your name with the Land Registry as soon as possible to ensure full protection of your rights. The notary can even send advance notification to the Land Registry electronically once the public deed is signed.

Buying property in certain areas

If you are considering purchasing a coastal property you should contact the Coastal Demarcation office in your region to get a certificate to certify that the property is not affected by the 1988 Coastal Law. Bear in mind that while it is possible to view the coastal boundaries of the public maritime areas online on the Environment Ministry’s website, this may not provide sufficiently accurate information on which to base a property purchase.

Exercise extreme caution if the Land Registry record shows that the property you wish to buy is built on rural land. In normal circumstances this type of land is reserved for agricultural use and you would need to undertake additional checks with the municipal and regional authorities to ensure that full planning permission has been obtained for residential use.

Buying property off-plan

Buying off-plan property inevitably involves higher risk than buying re-sale property. If you are considering buying off-plan in Spain there are a number of points to consider.

Make sure you have a bank guarantee (aval bancario) to cover your stage payments. Developers of off-plan properties are legally obliged under law 57/1968 to secure all deposits with a bank guarantee. You should ensure that this guarantee is individual and not a collective guarantee covering the whole development, which does not give the same protection. You should also request proof that your payment has been deposited in a special escrow account, which can only be used for construction of the specified development.

Make sure the developer you are signing the agreement with is registered with the Mercantile Registry and the person who is going to sign on the developer’s behalf has the legal power to do so. You can visit any Mercantile Registry office or use theregistradores website.

Check with the Land Registry to make sure the land which is going to be built on is registered to the developer you are doing business with.

Make sure you obtain a copy of the Cadastral certificate giving the exact boundaries and square metres of your land.

Ensure the developer has insurance covering damage caused by structural defects to the building. This insurance should be included in the property manual (libro del edificio) that the developer gives you.

Check the project has planning permission. Make sure the planned building has been authorised by the town hall through the correct licensing procedure, and has approval from the regional government. You can check this at the Land Registry, because if the description of the future building is registered, the registrar will have seen evidence that the licence exists and work has begun in accordance with the approved design.

If the building’s description is not yet registered, visit the local Town Hall to find out whether the land is classed as suitable for development. If the property is to be built on rural land or land not classified for residential construction, you should exercise caution and obtain additional confirmation from the regional government as that the development is authorised. It is also advisable to obtain a certificate regarding the planning situation of the plot you wish to buy from the Town Planning (Urbanismo) department of the town hall. This will include other information such as whether the plot has any building restrictions, is in a green zone, includes a public footpath or if there are any current plans to build a motorway etc.

Once construction has finished, and before you sign the title deed, ask for proof from the seller that the construction has been finished in accordance with the description given in the plans. This is issued as a certificate (certificado final de obra). You can also check this at the Land Registry.

Make sure you have the licence of first occupancy (licencia de primera occupación) which is issued by the town hall for new buildings and certifies that the property is habitable. You will need this document to connect to electricity and water companies. Developers cannot force you to complete without this licence.

Consider asking a chartered surveyor to check the property. This is not obligatory but it is wise to obtain a professional opinion on the property before you complete. The Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) exists in Spain and there are residential chartered surveyors working across the peninsula and the islands. Members of the RICS are qualified and experienced professionals offering independent and impartial advice.

The Spanish College of Architects in each province also offers a list of independent specialist surveyors.

Should the developer not build your property within the timeframe stated in the contract, or services and utilities are not completed and connected to standard, or the habitation certificate cannot be issued, you are legally entitled to either:

  • rescind the contract and have the deposits returned plus interest
  • or extend the deadline, allowing the developer to complete the property

If you want to rescind the contract, it is advisable to seek independent legal advice. Once you have consulted a lawyer, the first step is to write to the developer to explain that due to non-compliance with the contract, you want to rescind the contract and request that the deposits paid so far are returned, as well as the accrued interest. You should include any relevant documentation (e.g. a copy of the contract, copies of payments made, copy of the bank guarantee) and state a timeframe by which you want the amount to be reimbursed. It is advisable to write to the developer via Burofax, which enables you to prove that you have sent a specific document, and that the recipient received it.

If the developer does not respond to you within the specified timeframe, you should contact the claims department of the bank or savings bank responsible for the guarantee to request a refund of the payments made. Again, it is wise to make contact via Burofax and attach copies of all relevant documentation, including a copy of the bank guarantee, a copy of the complaint submitted to the developer, a copy of the developer’s response (if any) and copies of any documents which indicate that the developer has not complied with the contract.

Should the bank not comply, the only remaining course of redress is to instruct a lawyer to take a civil case against the bank.

If you believe you have been a victim of fraud and you have neither a bank guarantee nor an insurance policy from the developer, you should seek independent legal advice regarding taking criminal legal action through the courts and register a statement with the police.

Renting out your property

As from 1st June 2013, all homes for sale or to let in Spain are required by law to have an energy efficiency certificate. If you are offering your property for rent after this date, you will need to obtain an energy certificate first.

Short-term lets

If you want to let your property to tourists on a short-term basis, you must ensure that you are doing so in accordance with Spanish law. The regulations on letting tourist apartments (apartamentos turisticos) and holiday homes (viviendas vacacionales) to tourists will vary depending on the region where the property is located.

If you are planning on making a return by renting out your property on a short-term basis, it is best to seek independent legal advice and check what the rules are at the local town hall or the tourist department of the regional government before you buy. Be aware that the marketing of private residential property to tourists is strictly regulated in many regions of Spain.

Owners who are caught illegally advertising or letting out their properties without complying with local legislation can be liable for significant fines, in some cases reaching as much as €30,000. If you are planning to buy an apartment which is part of a residential block, you should also check whether there are any rules set by the committee of owners that prohibit or restrict short-term letting. You may want to consider hiring a Spanish letting agent to assist with finding tenants, drawing up rental contracts and managing the property on your behalf. In some regions, such as Murcia, it is obligatory to use a specialist tourist apartment management company for short-term rentals to tourists.

Long-term lets

Owners who let their properties on a long-term basis are free to do so within the terms set out by the national rental law. However, it is worth seeking professional advice to make sure that you are complying with Spanish legislation and that you are using the correct rental contract.

In Spain, there are different types of contracts depending on how long the property is due to be let. You can get copies of these contracts from tobacconists.

Letting taxes

You must ensure that you declare your rental income to the Spanish tax authorities (Agencia Tributaria) whether you are resident in Spain or not. Taxation is a complex issue, and it is advisable to seek the advice of an accountant or professional tax adviser with comprehensive and up to date knowledge of both the UK and Spanish tax regulations.

Equity release schemes

Equity release schemes are schemes which are designed to allow homeowners to release equity from the value of their property as income, a lump sum or a mixture of both. A reverse mortgage (hipoteca inversa) is one form of equity release which allows homeowners to borrow money against the value of their home, which is used as collateral. Reverse mortgages are generally marketed at retired homeowners who are over 65 years old.

If you are considering an equity release scheme, such as a reverse mortgage or lifetime loan, it is advisable to check that the company offering the mortgage is registered with the financial regulator for the securities markets, the Comision Nacional de Mercado de Valores (CNMV) and that they do not have any warnings issued against them.

A list of financial companies which are not authorised to operate in Spain and those subject to an ongoing investigation is available on the CNMV website.

Seek independent legal advice prior to signing any contracts to make sure that the information the company has given you is correct, there are no abusive clauses in the contract and you are fully aware of your obligations and rights.

Be suspicious of financial companies or agents who try to persuade you into signing a reverse mortgage agreement as a way of avoiding or reducing your tax obligations. If you have any concerns about your tax obligations (for example inheritance tax) you should seek the advice of an experienced professional tax advisor who can advise you independently. Alternatively you may wish to check with the Spanish Tax Office (Agencia Tributaria).

If you are not happy with the scheme you have been sold, the first step is to submit a complaint to the company responsible for your investment. If, after two months, you are not satisfied with the response or do not receive a response, you are entitled to complain to the CNMV.

Although the CNMV final reports are not binding, they will comment on the conduct of the company or person against whom the complaint has been made. Where the report favours the customer, the company involved is required to notify the CNMV of any action taken to resolve the matter. If you believe you have been a victim of a fraud involving an equity release scheme you can register a statement with the police and seek independent legal advice on taking action through the courts.

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Problems with timeshare property

Timeshare ownership is well established in Spain with many respected companies, agents and resorts operating legally and fairly. However, there are also many unscrupulous companies, some of which claim to provide various incentives (including stock market investments and discounts on airfares and accommodation) when exchanging existing time-share ownership or taking out membership of holiday clubs.

Problems with timeshare property

Timeshare ownership is well established in Spain with many respected companies, agents and resorts operating legally and fairly. However, there are also many unscrupulous companies, some of which claim to provide various incentives (including stock market investments and discounts on airfares and accommodation) when exchanging existing time-share ownership or taking out membership of holiday clubs.

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